The original idea for the establishment of a medical college for the undivided Punjab was placed before the Imperial Government in 1857, but shelved because of ‘War of Independence’, The need was so great that is was decided to make the beginning by establishing a Medical School in 1860. At that time the only other Medical School in Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent was situated in Calcutta. In August, 1960, Dr. IB. Scriven of the General Hospital in Calcutta was invited to become the Principal of the proposed Lahore Medical School, which was to be the second such Institution in Indo Pakistan Sub-Continent.

Dr. Scriven with Dr. Smith, a Civil Surgeon, conducted the first Matriculation Examination on the 1st of November, 1860 having arrived in Lahore on 10th of October, 1860. The classes were to be held in and English 20 students qualified for the Hindustani class in initial examination while a000nother qualifying examination was held on the 15th November, 1860 allowing 24 more students to qualify for the class thus producing a total of 44 students for the Hindustani class. only 5 students were enrolled for the English Class of which only 2 persisted on the College Rolls after a year; one European, and one Indian, English was not widely known in the province at that time.

In keeping with the modest beginning, the newly created institution was designated as Lahore Medical School and started functioning in Artillery Barracks at the present site of the Government College, with a Hospital located in a foreign stable near the present Tibbi Police station in Taxali Gate, almost a mile away from the college. This arrangement according to Dr. Scriven was most inconvenient and insufficient for the needs of the community. In October, 1860 the hospital had 56 patients.
The only posts sanctioned by the Government in the beginning were those of the Principal , who started teaching Anatomy, Physiology; and a Professor ( Dr. T.E. Burton Brown) who commenced his lectures on Chemistry, Materia Medica and Botany Dr. Smith who had spent several years in the Punjab was put Incharge of the Hindustani Classes and was assisted by Mr. Harrison. Dr. Mohammad Hussain Khan and sub-assistant surgeon Rahim Khan. Dr. Neil , the Garrison Assistant Surgeon in Lahore was appointed as Assistant Professor to teach Anatomy. The school soon gained in popularity which was evidenced by the steady increase in the member of students which rose to 40 by the year 1870 in English Classes and 87 in the Hindustani Classes. 27 students passed the native Doctor’s Examination in 1863 and one student by the name of John Andrews passed the Sub Assistant Surgeons examination in 1865. In 1864 15 vacancies had been created for the students from the North Western Frontier Province to make up the deficiencies of the Pushto speaking doctors. The same year, College and the hospital was shifted to Shah Alami Gate, which was nearer to the Civil Hospital in Anarkali and provided more opportunities for the study of the patients and postmortem cases.
One of the main difficulties of the newly created Lahore Medical School was to popularize Western medicine against superstition, quackery and indigenous healing arts in a custom ridden society. This acted as concert with a lack of foresight of a Government unwilling to loosen their money purse strings. However according to the Principal report of 1868 during the 1867 Cholera Epidemic, fresh native doctors were sent to the affected areas and by virtue of their sound training and working habits alleviated the previously severe misery faced by their fellow countrymen and generated good will and acceptance for themselves in the society.
In 1868 the Senate of the University of Dublin granted students of the Lahore Medical School ” privilege similar to the granted to students from English Schools” , who have not passed the college of Surgeons of England. This along with the establishment of Gilchrist Scholarships opened up avenues of further studies for Punjabi students.
The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Mr. 0 F. Mcleod in his departing report for 1869-70 expressed his pleasure at the progress of the school and felicitated Dr. Scriven and his team. He hoped that the Government would do its part by providing more staff and money to the school, whose graduates, though considered by some to be somewhat concerted were as proficient as any in rest of India.
The present famous Mayo Hospital building was completed in 1870. It was opened in 1871 and was named after the Earl of Mayo, the then Viceroy. The Architect Purdon designed the building and Roy Bahadur Kanhaya Lal was the Engineer. The new Hospital, building was built in Italian style, double storied, bricked with Delhi stone brackets, a sloped slate roof, ventilating turrets. The new building cost RS. 1.58,951/- with a contribution of RS. 1,00,000/- from the Government of India and RS. 26,697/- from the Lahore Municipality and rest was made up by the Punjab Government. Patients from Anarkali Dispensary shifted in May, 1871 resulting in better patient care and more medico-legal cases for study by the students. Simultaneously the Civil Surgeon was relieved of the task of attending the Anarkali Dispensary except for Police cases. In October, 1871 Earl of Mayo, Viceroy of India visited the Hospital and in memory of his visit the Hospital was named as Mayo Hospital.
Until 1870, the Medical School had been granting its own diplomas to Sub-assistant Surgeons and native doctors. With the opening of the Punjab University College that year, it was. arranged so that the new College would undertake the conduct of examination and granting of University diplomas. The first such examination was held in October, 1871 by Diploma in Medicine. During the next 13 years the Punjab University College awarded diplomas to 145 successful students. It is matter of interest to note that the Medical College has a longer history than the University of the Punjab, and the relationship between the two has always been cordial and cooperative. The College was then as now independent in all affairs in teaching and administration except for conducting examinations.

By 1871, the number of applicants had overtaken the number of available vacancies. That year, 190 candidates applied for 40 vacancies. The Hindustani class was composed of people in government service or those supported by various local funds, the former being inducted by competitive examination. The language of instruction in this class was Urdu.
1870 saw the establishment of a Hakims Class consisting of sons and relatives of Hakims with some knowledge of Unani medical system.

This formed another division of the Hindustani class with emphasis of Anatomy and Surgery to fill the vacuum in the Unani system regarding these branches of modern medical science.
The Lahore medical School was moved from the old barracks to the erstwhile Railway Hostel near the Mayo Hospital, a more spacious building. Its large stables comprising nine stall, harness rooms and a coach house were converted into a dissection room and an injection room. The move was effected in a single day, without any damage or interruption in teaching.
The first group of students from the North western Province was admitted in 1864. As the production of Sub-Assistant Surgeons was expected to outstrip the demand by the Punjab Government, half the scholarships for the English class were earmarked for students from the North Western Province.
Dr. T.E. Burton Brown, the Principal in 1875, had for some time been pressing for a new school building, but the government replied with their usual answer of lack of funds to do so . This was in spite of the contribution of the School towards the welfare of the government by producing 52 Assistant Surgeons and 215 Hospital Assistants for government service. The public and the government were conscious of the performance of the School and the esteem in which it was held, but this did not stop the Lieutenant Governor from charging the graduates with a lack of refinement and their behavior towards the patients being” not kindly and considerate”, though he could not find fault with their medical training.
A class for training Civil Hospital Assistants to serve under the government was an important addition to the school. Eight students joined in 1879. The Nawab of Bahawalpur instituted the Grey Scholarship worth RS. 10,000 in honour of Major Grey, a former Political Agent of Bahawalpur.
A continuous supply of graduates to the Armed Forces started with 15 fresh Assistant Surgeons volunteering for military duty with the Kabul Forces in 1882. The same year, a Midwifery class for ‘dais’ was started. In 1883, this class had only two Muslims out of a total of 20 midwives; the English class had eight Muslim in a class of 61 in 1883, and 12 Muslims out of 82 in 1885. The dropout rate in 1883 was 16% in the English class and 24% in the Hindustani class. This led to the prescription of more stringent tests for admission.
The first building of the Medical School was built in the same style as the Mayo Hospital. it was completed in 1883. The next year, a nursing class was also started. Women students were allowed to register for regular courses in the same class as men for the first time.

J.E. Hilton Executive Engineer, Lahore designed and constructed a new dissection room in 1887. Student’s debating society was formed. Staff and students read and discussed medical and scientific papers. Prizes were awarded for essay writing.
The Marchioness of Dufferin and Anna inaugurated the Lady Aitchison Hospital and distributed prizes, Students admitted into the Indian Medical Service, demonstrating the School’s increasing recognition. Four Assistant Surgeons had been previously admitted.

The Punjab University, was formally created on the 14th of October; 1882 . It had a Faculty of Medicine to function as a body to hold examination and confer diplomas and degrees upon graduates of the Medical School.
This institution came to be known as the Lahore Medical College in 1886. Till 1887, The University awarded the diploma of Licentiate in Medicine to candidates graduating through the English class for western medical science. Students studied for the title of Hakim Haziq , Umdat ul Hukama, Zubdat ul Hukama under the Unani system, in the vernacular. Under the Ayurvedic system, the titles were Vaida’ Bhishak, and Maha Bhishak. In May 1888, however, the 28 Unani and 8 Vedic system students were transferred with their teachers to the Medical School. Their numbers continued to diminish. The end of 1898 brought another migration for them, to the Islamia and DAV Colleges respectively. This left the Lahore Medical College with only students studying the western medical sciences.
The first College Day was held in the college library on the 5th. of November, 1888. The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab presided.
The Faculty of Medicine prepared a series of Regulations for the Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine degree examinations. The First degrees were conferred in 1891, when the title of the inferior diploma was changed the Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery. Miss. H. Connor was the first woman student to pass the final examination of the Licentiate in medicine and surgery of the Punjab University, in 1889, but she had only a few more months to live. In November, lady Landsdowne laid the foundations of Lady Lyall’s Home, a new hostel for 30 women students.
An outstanding student of the College was Muhammad Abdul Ghani; admitted after his BA from the Punjab University, who compiled a Botany test while a student in medical college and was recommended for the Gilchrist scholarship. That year, 1890, lady Lyall’s Home was completed. Mrs. Hammond was the first lady Superintendent.

Two alumni of this institution joined the Indian Medical Service after successful completion of advanced studies in England. They were placed 3rd and 14th. on the merit list of 14 successful candidates out of 45 applicants for the Service.
To cater for the increasing numbers of students, 322 in 1892, an additional Professor for the Chair of Materia Medica and Pathology was appointed by the Secretary of State for India. There were now eight professor compared to 14 in the Calcutta college. The Anatomy museum was granted RS. 1000.

It was noted that the pass percentage in annual examinations had greatly decreased. According to the Principals report for 1893-94, the causes were
( a ) deficient preliminary education:
(b) inadequate numerical strength of College teachers
(c) a defective educational system.
Changes in the professional staff in 1895 led to a fall in the number of students clearing the clinical subjects. Written examinations were conducted by professors from other medical colleges in the country. It was suggested that internal examiners play a greater part in the assessment of the students’ performance. The University required•• candidates to secure at least 50% marks to pass the examinations, rendering the process a mechanical test ability. Furthermore many students failed the tests by only one mark.
The general public and other students were also disturbed with the university’s record, since an increment in the number of failures could be seen in all the examinations of the University and not the medical ones alone. Consensus said that examinations at all stages were too difficult for a ” youth of ordinary ability”, though he be well taught. The results, it was said, were not comparable with those of other universities as the passing mark was higher in the Punjab, markedly so for the higher examination, whereas the standard of question papers fluctuated greatly. The government decided to lower the standard and bring it at par with the other Indian Universities to allow more students to pass. However, as the entrance examination was considered an inappropriate criterion to judge the academic suitability of students in a milieu where education was not sufficiently advanced, the next year the University Senate decided upon the Intermediate examination in Arts as the minimum entrance requirement, to be effected from 1897. This would prompt an increase in the pass percentage and raise standards, albeit there was a temporary decrease in the number of students on the rolls.
A building housing the Post- mortem theatre and a small two room Pathology laboratory was built in 1895.
During the last five years of the 1800’s the minimum entrance requirement for the Assistant Surgeon for the Assistant Surgeon class was raised to the intermediate Science or the First Arts examinations. A preliminary scientific examination was instituted for the second year of this class. Also a class was started for the training of selected Ward Orderlies.
At the turn of the century, a College for university degree and diploma courses and a School for Health Assistants could be discerned under the blanket of this institution. A class for compounders was started in April 1901. In the College department, 55 students received scholarships from the Punjab government, governments of the North western and Central Provinces, Municipal committee and duffer in Funds, In the School department, 170 received stipends. RS.l 00,000 were finally sanctioned for a hostel.
With the official affiliation of the College with the Punjab University in 1906, the primary science teaching was transferred to the Government College, relieving the Professor of Anatomy and Physiology of a heavy burden. The concomitant revision of Medical Regulations and updating by the University increased the strain on the staff with a resultant addition of the following during 1908-09:-
Professor of Pathology
Professor of Midwifery and diseases of women.
Professor of Ophthalmic Surgery and Disease of the Ear, Nose &Throat.
Assistant to the Professor of Medicine.
Assistant to the Professor of Materia Medica Assistant to the Professor of Physiology.
Meanwhile, in spite of rising expenditure, there had been a fall in the number of students and a sustained low pass percentage in examinations. The differing viewpoints of the academicians and the bureaucrats regarding the function and problems of this institution can been seen in the correspondence between the Inspector General of Hospitals and the Principal. The former had expressed apprehension at the low pass percentage from both the College and the School, resulting in difficulty in filling vacancies, particularly on the military side fed by the School, and asked for measures to reverse the trend . He also questioned the efficiency of the College since expenditure had increased despite fewer students.
According to the Principal, the fall in the average number of students on college rolls was due to several reasons. New Medical Regulations had been introduced by the University and enforced without the usual two years notice. Thus, at the time of applying for entrance, many students found themselves ineligible because they had either not done their Intermediate Science course or not taken the Biology and Chemistry tests now required. Also, the admission date had been changed with the Government College academic year starting in May whereas College Classes always started in October, Moreover, there had been a delay in informing intending applicants through the government gazette and public newspapers. This, compounded by a misunderstanding as to whether the government or the College would admit new entrants, led to many students missing the closing date, or , if in other provinces, being not admitted altogether.
Nevertheless, the number of applicants still exceeded the available vacancies.
The number of free students was curtailed because of a lack of cadavers for dissection. The principal was in favors of increasing the” pay prospects and status of the Hospital Assistant class as a whole,” to offer them an incentive.
While considering the maintenance cost, it should be remembered that the School and College catered for the needs of the whole of Northern and Central India and Burma, producing University graduates as well as hakims, hospital assistants, hospital orderlies, nurses and dais.
During 1906-11, the Chemical Examiner vacated several rooms on his departure from the College premises. A separate Department of Physiology came into being and separate museums of Materia Medica, Hygiene and Midwifery were established.
The scarcity of cadavers for dissection and only one hospital to provide patients for study by students of both the College and the School impinged upon the efficiency of the institution, with consequent restriction of new admission. This was inspite of an increased popularity of sub assistant Surgeon diploma classes due to increased pay and raised status recently granted them.

Scholarships were diverted with the transfer of the preliminary science teaching to the science colleges and the opening of a new Medical College in Lucknow which claimed finances from the United and Central Provinces.
To remedy the falling numbers of successful candidates, test examinations were instituted and only students clearing these were allowed to appear for the university examinations. This proved effective, as shown by the improved pass percentage in the 1911-12 examinations.

New professors for pathology, Ophthalmic Surgery, Midwifery and Diseases of Women were added to the staff with the splitting of the Chair of Materia Medical and Pathology. Also enlisted were Assistants to the Professors of Physiology, Medicine and Materia Medica; three Clinical Assistants to the Professors of Surgery, Ophthalmic Surgery and Midwifery; and Demonstrator in Anatomy.
The financial handicap of the College was at last acknowledged and it was sought to rectify the situation by taking advantage of the King Edward Medial Memorial Fund. A public meeting on the 31st. of July, 1910 approved the proposals for the construction of a new, bigger Medical College and the expansion of its attached hospitals: the Mayo, The Albert Victor and the Lady Aitchison. The foundation stone of the Mayo Hospital extension as part of the King Edward VII Memorial was laid on the 21st of December, 1911.
Lt. Col. Sutherland, the Principal, felt that a second chance should be given to students who had not cleared the Biology and Chemistry tests in the first attempt, to enable them to be eligible for entrance to the College. The University did not agree with his proposal submitted in 1912, but the Supplementary examinations were instituted later
The paucity of Lady Doctors needed to run Zanana Hospitals and Dispensaries was also noted by the Principal. Many girls of good families did not” care to read in the classes with boy students” Women from the Ludhiana Medical School were to be encourage to join the College.
On the 12th. of February, 1913, the students went on strike, till the 28th. of February. Consequently, four striking students were detained for a year and the scholarships of six were forfeited. An Enquiry Committee was appointed by the Punjab Government but its reports is unavailable and the grievances of the students are not clear. The strikewas perhaps triggered off by uncomplimentary remarks in British newspapers about Indian students studying in Great Britain and Scotland, who had acquired professional distinction. The Principal refused to approach higher authorities with the indignation of the students at the press comments. Ninety of the military class students were rusticated, though the conduct of the school students was reported to be satisfactory.

A Professor of Operative Surgery was appointed in 1915. Three assistant Surgeons were appointed as demonstrators in Anatomy and Physiology and a lecturer in Pathology. Tutorial groups were started with the increments in staff. Work had started on the medical college extension project in 1914. The research block comprised the new Pathology, Physiology, and Hygiene Departments. The Viceroy, Lord Haringe of Penhurst, inaugurated the main block in 1915 on the tenth of November, Extensions to the Materia Medica and Anatomy block were also completed.

With the expansion of the College and its rolls and the reversion of many staff members to military during the first World War, the burden on the rest of the staff increased greatly. The Principal proposed to the government the separation of the duties of the Principal of the College and the superintendent of the Hospital.
Though space would soon become scarce again, the completion of the new College buildings brought temporary relief. The K.E.M.C. comprised:-
(a) Patiala Block: administrative offices, a large library – cum examination hall, four lecture theatres, a museum, a council room and common rooms for staff and students,
(b) Bahawalpur block: the pathology Department on the ground floor and the Physiology Department on the first floor each with a lecture theatre, practical classrooms, work rooms, etc. Rooms on the first floor were reserved for a Hygiene Department.
(c) Faridkot Block: a complete unit for teaching Anatomy. (d) Kapurthala Block: the Department of materia Medica.
(e) A cold storage block with separate Pathology and medicolegal postmortem theatres.
More and more applications were being received for admission each year: the number had doubled over the previous five years. The military department alone required ninety new graduates every year. Hence Punjab civil and Burma entrants were cut down from 15 to 10, with no admissions for potential privately financed students from Indian states and Municipalities.
This led to frustration for the rejected applicants and also left the governments requirements unfulfilled. The College and School vied with each other for the lion’s share of vacancies and facilities.
Finally, the only, option left was something that had been urged over the years, namely, shifting the School to Amritsar, which had a big hospital and a large number of unclaimed bodies available for dissection. The separation or-the College and School was effected in October, 1920. The next year, the College rolls listed 439 students as against 231 in 1916.
There was no special provident fund for the staff then, though some did subscribe to the general government provident fund. Students were not medically examined. The tutorial group system, besides being of academic value, played a social role with a close and intimate contact between students and teachers, and provided a substitute for formal religious and moral instruction. In contrast to other universities in the country, there was no communal prejudice in the KEMC. and the political unrest did not affect its placed working. Only two students participated in the non-cooperation movement and left the College.
For instruction in Midwifery, students from this college used to go to Madras. Since the maximum number of students entertained was 60, either the number of admissions had to be limited to around 60 or some provision for teaching midwifery had to be made in Lahore. This situation was brought to a head when the Government of Madras discontinued receiving KEMC students in 1925-26. A temporary maternity hospital was set up for practical midwifery classes till the expected completion of a permanent hospital in 1927. The entries in 1924 were restricted to 75 students.
A university regulation requiring students to attend 20 midwifery cases under adequate supervision precipitated another fall in the number of admissions in those years. In 1928-29, 18 students less than the previous years were admitted: the number of Muslims fell from 182 to 168. The next year, there were 153 Muslims as against 265 non-Muslims. However, in 1928-29, a total of 26 pupils were trained at the temporary maternity hospital in Lahore.

Lt. Col. Harper-Nelson, in his annual Principal’s report for 1932-33, discussed the situation of the College at length. He said he realized that his proposals, such as those for a Pharmacology Department extension, swimming pool, better hostels and playing fields, entailed expense, but it was up to the government to devise means to meet the expenditure. The College had always been a victim of the government’s financial stringency in spite of a continuous voicing of demands for adequate financing and having proved its worth to the government and the people. It was necessary, he said to bolster the College and provide a sound superstructure for the welfare of the Province. He noted that no improvement either in accommodation or facilities had taken place over the past year, which was probably the worst in the history of the College in this respect.

On the other hand, a questionnaire had been issued, which was a virtual indictment of the College. In replying to this scrutiny, his office staff had to work six weeks, nights and holidays included. This questionnaire had created a sense of insecurity in the staff and diverted their energies to worrying about their future and performance instead of devoting them to constructive purposes.

Lt. Col. Harper-Nelson pointed out that the reputation of the College was widespread; applications for undergraduate studies had been received from, South America, Jamaica, Hong Kong, The Malay States, and Rome, Former students had obtained the MRCP ( London & Edinburgh), FRCS ( England and Edinburgh), Diplomas in Public Health, Tropical Medicine, Hygiene, Midwifery and Diseases of the Eye. These successes of alumni abroad pointed to a deep understanding of medical teaching in their almamater which was jeopardized by financial strangulation. A special mention was made of the deficient resources of the materia medica Department in the report.
The report spoke of the success of the mixed classes with 20 women on the rolls, but said that proper accommodation and comfort must be provided to the ladies, like at other institutions, in the country, and they be protected from untoward influences.
The Government Hospital for women and children had been officially opened by the Countess of Willingdon, on March 11 1933 and named after her. It had provided training in and Obstetrics to the college students for two years, but the building had only now been completed. However, it did not have enough beds to cater for all the students and was so far off as to interfere with their attendance at classes in the College.
Demands for an expansion of the Lady Willingdon Hospital fell on deaf ears. To add insult to injury, the Indian medical Council in its turn criticized the College. The problem was that students received Practical Midwifery training in batches of five at a time due to a lack of accommodation and they could be kept for only 24 days. This fell short of the month of attendance required by regulations. Consequently, the College was disaffiliated in 1930 and as a compensation for space shortage, admission were cut from 75 to 60.
Since the College catered, besides Punjab, for the North west Frontier Province, Delhi Province, Baluchistan Administration, Jammu and Kashmir State and Punjab States, of the 75 normal seats, Punjab students were allotted 55 Seats, 20 being reserved for students from the other areas. About 300 applications were received from the Punjab every year.

The Director General, India Medical Service, wrote a letter of appreciation of the college staff, but it served only to cover up the Scrooge like attitude of the administration towards the institution.
In 1935 the College celebrated the completion of its 75 years of existence in November, despite the refusal of the government to grant RS. 6000 for the Diamond Jubilee celebrations.

There was a banquet, sports, dinners, concerts, illuminations. His Excellency the Governor of the former Punjab attended with his Ministers and Heads of Departments. The college was eulogized in speeches. Public commendation was forthcoming.
In his report for 1935-36, the Principal again complained of lack of funds.
Lt. Col. Harper- Nelson was unable to continue because of ill health. he went on leave preparatory to retirement in November 1935.
The College was again recognized for the MMBS degree by the General Medical Council of Great Britain in 1936 with retrospective effect. The DLO postgraduate course was started . The BDS degree was also instituted by the Punjab University. Construction of a swimming tank was started, financed by the Students Fund. Capt. Illahi Buksh Joined as the Professor of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
The Materia Medica Block was extended in 1937-38. Women students were awarded a number of scholarships from the Countess of Dufferin Fund, bringing the total scholarships to 64. An Embryology section was opened in the Anatomy department. Dr. Riyaz-e-Qadeer was the only staff member to pass the primary FRCS(Eng.) examination held in Bombay. A physical instructor and a chemist were appointed.

The original idea for the establishment of a medical college for the undivided Punjab was placed before the Imperial Government in 1857, but shelved because of ‘War of Independence’, The need was so great that is was decided to make the beginning by establishing a Medical School in 1860. At that time the only other Medical School in Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent was situated in Calcutta. In August, 1960, Dr. IB. Scriven of the General Hospital in Calcutta was invited to become the Principal of the proposed Lahore Medical School, which was to be the second such Institution in Indo Pakistan Sub-Continent.

Dr. Scriven with Dr. Smith, a Civil Surgeon, conducted the first Matriculation Examination on the 1st of November, 1860 having arrived in Lahore on 10th of October, 1860. The classes were to be held in and English 20 students qualified for the Hindustani class in initial examination while a000nother qualifying examination was held on the 15th November, 1860 allowing 24 more students to qualify for the class thus producing a total of 44 students for the Hindustani class. only 5 students were enrolled for the English Class of which only 2 persisted on the College Rolls after a year; one European, and one Indian, English was not widely known in the province at that time.

In keeping with the modest beginning, the newly created institution was designated as Lahore Medical School and started functioning in Artillery Barracks at the present site of the Government College, with a Hospital located in a foreign stable near the present Tibbi Police station in Taxali Gate, almost a mile away from the college. This arrangement according to Dr. Scriven was most inconvenient and insufficient for the needs of the community. In October, 1860 the hospital had 56 patients.
The only posts sanctioned by the Government in the beginning were those of the Principal , who started teaching Anatomy, Physiology; and a Professor ( Dr. T.E. Burton Brown) who commenced his lectures on Chemistry, Materia Medica and Botany Dr. Smith who had spent several years in the Punjab was put Incharge of the Hindustani Classes and was assisted by Mr. Harrison. Dr. Mohammad Hussain Khan and sub-assistant surgeon Rahim Khan. Dr. Neil , the Garrison Assistant Surgeon in Lahore was appointed as Assistant Professor to teach Anatomy. The school soon gained in popularity which was evidenced by the steady increase in the member of students which rose to 40 by the year 1870 in English Classes and 87 in the Hindustani Classes. 27 students passed the native Doctor’s Examination in 1863 and one student by the name of John Andrews passed the Sub Assistant Surgeons examination in 1865. In 1864 15 vacancies had been created for the students from the North Western Frontier Province to make up the deficiencies of the Pushto speaking doctors. The same year, College and the hospital was shifted to Shah Alami Gate, which was nearer to the Civil Hospital in Anarkali and provided more opportunities for the study of the patients and postmortem cases.
One of the main difficulties of the newly created Lahore Medical School was to popularize Western medicine against superstition, quackery and indigenous healing arts in a custom ridden society. This acted as concert with a lack of foresight of a Government unwilling to loosen their money purse strings. However according to the Principal report of 1868 during the 1867 Cholera Epidemic, fresh native doctors were sent to the affected areas and by virtue of their sound training and working habits alleviated the previously severe misery faced by their fellow countrymen and generated good will and acceptance for themselves in the society.
In 1868 the Senate of the University of Dublin granted students of the Lahore Medical School ” privilege similar to the granted to students from English Schools” , who have not passed the college of Surgeons of England. This along with the establishment of Gilchrist Scholarships opened up avenues of further studies for Punjabi students.
The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Mr. 0 F. Mcleod in his departing report for 1869-70 expressed his pleasure at the progress of the school and felicitated Dr. Scriven and his team. He hoped that the Government would do its part by providing more staff and money to the school, whose graduates, though considered by some to be somewhat concerted were as proficient as any in rest of India.
The present famous Mayo Hospital building was completed in 1870. It was opened in 1871 and was named after the Earl of Mayo, the then Viceroy. The Architect Purdon designed the building and Roy Bahadur Kanhaya Lal was the Engineer. The new Hospital, building was built in Italian style, double storied, bricked with Delhi stone brackets, a sloped slate roof, ventilating turrets. The new building cost RS. 1.58,951/- with a contribution of RS. 1,00,000/- from the Government of India and RS. 26,697/- from the Lahore Municipality and rest was made up by the Punjab Government. Patients from Anarkali Dispensary shifted in May, 1871 resulting in better patient care and more medico-legal cases for study by the students. Simultaneously the Civil Surgeon was relieved of the task of attending the Anarkali Dispensary except for Police cases. In October, 1871 Earl of Mayo, Viceroy of India visited the Hospital and in memory of his visit the Hospital was named as Mayo Hospital.
Until 1870, the Medical School had been granting its own diplomas to Sub-assistant Surgeons and native doctors. With the opening of the Punjab University College that year, it was. arranged so that the new College would undertake the conduct of examination and granting of University diplomas. The first such examination was held in October, 1871 by Diploma in Medicine. During the next 13 years the Punjab University College awarded diplomas to 145 successful students. It is matter of interest to note that the Medical College has a longer history than the University of the Punjab, and the relationship between the two has always been cordial and cooperative. The College was then as now independent in all affairs in teaching and administration except for conducting examinations.

By 1871, the number of applicants had overtaken the number of available vacancies. That year, 190 candidates applied for 40 vacancies. The Hindustani class was composed of people in government service or those supported by various local funds, the former being inducted by competitive examination. The language of instruction in this class was Urdu.
1870 saw the establishment of a Hakims Class consisting of sons and relatives of Hakims with some knowledge of Unani medical system.

This formed another division of the Hindustani class with emphasis of Anatomy and Surgery to fill the vacuum in the Unani system regarding these branches of modern medical science.
The Lahore medical School was moved from the old barracks to the erstwhile Railway Hostel near the Mayo Hospital, a more spacious building. Its large stables comprising nine stall, harness rooms and a coach house were converted into a dissection room and an injection room. The move was effected in a single day, without any damage or interruption in teaching.
The first group of students from the North western Province was admitted in 1864. As the production of Sub-Assistant Surgeons was expected to outstrip the demand by the Punjab Government, half the scholarships for the English class were earmarked for students from the North Western Province.
Dr. T.E. Burton Brown, the Principal in 1875, had for some time been pressing for a new school building, but the government replied with their usual answer of lack of funds to do so . This was in spite of the contribution of the School towards the welfare of the government by producing 52 Assistant Surgeons and 215 Hospital Assistants for government service. The public and the government were conscious of the performance of the School and the esteem in which it was held, but this did not stop the Lieutenant Governor from charging the graduates with a lack of refinement and their behavior towards the patients being” not kindly and considerate”, though he could not find fault with their medical training.
A class for training Civil Hospital Assistants to serve under the government was an important addition to the school. Eight students joined in 1879. The Nawab of Bahawalpur instituted the Grey Scholarship worth RS. 10,000 in honour of Major Grey, a former Political Agent of Bahawalpur.
A continuous supply of graduates to the Armed Forces started with 15 fresh Assistant Surgeons volunteering for military duty with the Kabul Forces in 1882. The same year, a Midwifery class for ‘dais’ was started. In 1883, this class had only two Muslims out of a total of 20 midwives; the English class had eight Muslim in a class of 61 in 1883, and 12 Muslims out of 82 in 1885. The dropout rate in 1883 was 16% in the English class and 24% in the Hindustani class. This led to the prescription of more stringent tests for admission.
The first building of the Medical School was built in the same style as the Mayo Hospital. it was completed in 1883. The next year, a nursing class was also started. Women students were allowed to register for regular courses in the same class as men for the first time.

J.E. Hilton Executive Engineer, Lahore designed and constructed a new dissection room in 1887. Student’s debating society was formed. Staff and students read and discussed medical and scientific papers. Prizes were awarded for essay writing.
The Marchioness of Dufferin and Anna inaugurated the Lady Aitchison Hospital and distributed prizes, Students admitted into the Indian Medical Service, demonstrating the School’s increasing recognition. Four Assistant Surgeons had been previously admitted.

The Punjab University, was formally created on the 14th of October; 1882 . It had a Faculty of Medicine to function as a body to hold examination and confer diplomas and degrees upon graduates of the Medical School.
This institution came to be known as the Lahore Medical College in 1886. Till 1887, The University awarded the diploma of Licentiate in Medicine to candidates graduating through the English class for western medical science. Students studied for the title of Hakim Haziq , Umdat ul Hukama, Zubdat ul Hukama under the Unani system, in the vernacular. Under the Ayurvedic system, the titles were Vaida’ Bhishak, and Maha Bhishak. In May 1888, however, the 28 Unani and 8 Vedic system students were transferred with their teachers to the Medical School. Their numbers continued to diminish. The end of 1898 brought another migration for them, to the Islamia and DAV Colleges respectively. This left the Lahore Medical College with only students studying the western medical sciences.
The first College Day was held in the college library on the 5th. of November, 1888. The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab presided.
The Faculty of Medicine prepared a series of Regulations for the Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine degree examinations. The First degrees were conferred in 1891, when the title of the inferior diploma was changed the Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery. Miss. H. Connor was the first woman student to pass the final examination of the Licentiate in medicine and surgery of the Punjab University, in 1889, but she had only a few more months to live. In November, lady Landsdowne laid the foundations of Lady Lyall’s Home, a new hostel for 30 women students.
An outstanding student of the College was Muhammad Abdul Ghani; admitted after his BA from the Punjab University, who compiled a Botany test while a student in medical college and was recommended for the Gilchrist scholarship. That year, 1890, lady Lyall’s Home was completed. Mrs. Hammond was the first lady Superintendent.

Two alumni of this institution joined the Indian Medical Service after successful completion of advanced studies in England. They were placed 3rd and 14th. on the merit list of 14 successful candidates out of 45 applicants for the Service.
To cater for the increasing numbers of students, 322 in 1892, an additional Professor for the Chair of Materia Medica and Pathology was appointed by the Secretary of State for India. There were now eight professor compared to 14 in the Calcutta college. The Anatomy museum was granted RS. 1000.

It was noted that the pass percentage in annual examinations had greatly decreased. According to the Principals report for 1893-94, the causes were
( a ) deficient preliminary education:
(b) inadequate numerical strength of College teachers
(c) a defective educational system.
Changes in the professional staff in 1895 led to a fall in the number of students clearing the clinical subjects. Written examinations were conducted by professors from other medical colleges in the country. It was suggested that internal examiners play a greater part in the assessment of the students’ performance. The University required•• candidates to secure at least 50% marks to pass the examinations, rendering the process a mechanical test ability. Furthermore many students failed the tests by only one mark.
The general public and other students were also disturbed with the university’s record, since an increment in the number of failures could be seen in all the examinations of the University and not the medical ones alone. Consensus said that examinations at all stages were too difficult for a ” youth of ordinary ability”, though he be well taught. The results, it was said, were not comparable with those of other universities as the passing mark was higher in the Punjab, markedly so for the higher examination, whereas the standard of question papers fluctuated greatly. The government decided to lower the standard and bring it at par with the other Indian Universities to allow more students to pass. However, as the entrance examination was considered an inappropriate criterion to judge the academic suitability of students in a milieu where education was not sufficiently advanced, the next year the University Senate decided upon the Intermediate examination in Arts as the minimum entrance requirement, to be effected from 1897. This would prompt an increase in the pass percentage and raise standards, albeit there was a temporary decrease in the number of students on the rolls.
A building housing the Post- mortem theatre and a small two room Pathology laboratory was built in 1895.
During the last five years of the 1800’s the minimum entrance requirement for the Assistant Surgeon for the Assistant Surgeon class was raised to the intermediate Science or the First Arts examinations. A preliminary scientific examination was instituted for the second year of this class. Also a class was started for the training of selected Ward Orderlies.
At the turn of the century, a College for university degree and diploma courses and a School for Health Assistants could be discerned under the blanket of this institution. A class for compounders was started in April 1901. In the College department, 55 students received scholarships from the Punjab government, governments of the North western and Central Provinces, Municipal committee and duffer in Funds, In the School department, 170 received stipends. RS.l 00,000 were finally sanctioned for a hostel.
With the official affiliation of the College with the Punjab University in 1906, the primary science teaching was transferred to the Government College, relieving the Professor of Anatomy and Physiology of a heavy burden. The concomitant revision of Medical Regulations and updating by the University increased the strain on the staff with a resultant addition of the following during 1908-09:-
Professor of Pathology
Professor of Midwifery and diseases of women.
Professor of Ophthalmic Surgery and Disease of the Ear, Nose &Throat.
Assistant to the Professor of Medicine.
Assistant to the Professor of Materia Medica Assistant to the Professor of Physiology.
Meanwhile, in spite of rising expenditure, there had been a fall in the number of students and a sustained low pass percentage in examinations. The differing viewpoints of the academicians and the bureaucrats regarding the function and problems of this institution can been seen in the correspondence between the Inspector General of Hospitals and the Principal. The former had expressed apprehension at the low pass percentage from both the College and the School, resulting in difficulty in filling vacancies, particularly on the military side fed by the School, and asked for measures to reverse the trend . He also questioned the efficiency of the College since expenditure had increased despite fewer students.
According to the Principal, the fall in the average number of students on college rolls was due to several reasons. New Medical Regulations had been introduced by the University and enforced without the usual two years notice. Thus, at the time of applying for entrance, many students found themselves ineligible because they had either not done their Intermediate Science course or not taken the Biology and Chemistry tests now required. Also, the admission date had been changed with the Government College academic year starting in May whereas College Classes always started in October, Moreover, there had been a delay in informing intending applicants through the government gazette and public newspapers. This, compounded by a misunderstanding as to whether the government or the College would admit new entrants, led to many students missing the closing date, or , if in other provinces, being not admitted altogether.
Nevertheless, the number of applicants still exceeded the available vacancies.
The number of free students was curtailed because of a lack of cadavers for dissection. The principal was in favors of increasing the” pay prospects and status of the Hospital Assistant class as a whole,” to offer them an incentive.
While considering the maintenance cost, it should be remembered that the School and College catered for the needs of the whole of Northern and Central India and Burma, producing University graduates as well as hakims, hospital assistants, hospital orderlies, nurses and dais.
During 1906-11, the Chemical Examiner vacated several rooms on his departure from the College premises. A separate Department of Physiology came into being and separate museums of Materia Medica, Hygiene and Midwifery were established.
The scarcity of cadavers for dissection and only one hospital to provide patients for study by students of both the College and the School impinged upon the efficiency of the institution, with consequent restriction of new admission. This was inspite of an increased popularity of sub assistant Surgeon diploma classes due to increased pay and raised status recently granted them.

Scholarships were diverted with the transfer of the preliminary science teaching to the science colleges and the opening of a new Medical College in Lucknow which claimed finances from the United and Central Provinces.
To remedy the falling numbers of successful candidates, test examinations were instituted and only students clearing these were allowed to appear for the university examinations. This proved effective, as shown by the improved pass percentage in the 1911-12 examinations.

New professors for pathology, Ophthalmic Surgery, Midwifery and Diseases of Women were added to the staff with the splitting of the Chair of Materia Medical and Pathology. Also enlisted were Assistants to the Professors of Physiology, Medicine and Materia Medica; three Clinical Assistants to the Professors of Surgery, Ophthalmic Surgery and Midwifery; and Demonstrator in Anatomy.
The financial handicap of the College was at last acknowledged and it was sought to rectify the situation by taking advantage of the King Edward Medial Memorial Fund. A public meeting on the 31st. of July, 1910 approved the proposals for the construction of a new, bigger Medical College and the expansion of its attached hospitals: the Mayo, The Albert Victor and the Lady Aitchison. The foundation stone of the Mayo Hospital extension as part of the King Edward VII Memorial was laid on the 21st of December, 1911.
Lt. Col. Sutherland, the Principal, felt that a second chance should be given to students who had not cleared the Biology and Chemistry tests in the first attempt, to enable them to be eligible for entrance to the College. The University did not agree with his proposal submitted in 1912, but the Supplementary examinations were instituted later
The paucity of Lady Doctors needed to run Zanana Hospitals and Dispensaries was also noted by the Principal. Many girls of good families did not” care to read in the classes with boy students” Women from the Ludhiana Medical School were to be encourage to join the College.
On the 12th. of February, 1913, the students went on strike, till the 28th. of February. Consequently, four striking students were detained for a year and the scholarships of six were forfeited. An Enquiry Committee was appointed by the Punjab Government but its reports is unavailable and the grievances of the students are not clear. The strikewas perhaps triggered off by uncomplimentary remarks in British newspapers about Indian students studying in Great Britain and Scotland, who had acquired professional distinction. The Principal refused to approach higher authorities with the indignation of the students at the press comments. Ninety of the military class students were rusticated, though the conduct of the school students was reported to be satisfactory.

A Professor of Operative Surgery was appointed in 1915. Three assistant Surgeons were appointed as demonstrators in Anatomy and Physiology and a lecturer in Pathology. Tutorial groups were started with the increments in staff. Work had started on the medical college extension project in 1914. The research block comprised the new Pathology, Physiology, and Hygiene Departments. The Viceroy, Lord Haringe of Penhurst, inaugurated the main block in 1915 on the tenth of November, Extensions to the Materia Medica and Anatomy block were also completed.

With the expansion of the College and its rolls and the reversion of many staff members to military during the first World War, the burden on the rest of the staff increased greatly. The Principal proposed to the government the separation of the duties of the Principal of the College and the superintendent of the Hospital.
Though space would soon become scarce again, the completion of the new College buildings brought temporary relief. The K.E.M.C. comprised:-
(a) Patiala Block: administrative offices, a large library – cum examination hall, four lecture theatres, a museum, a council room and common rooms for staff and students,
(b) Bahawalpur block: the pathology Department on the ground floor and the Physiology Department on the first floor each with a lecture theatre, practical classrooms, work rooms, etc. Rooms on the first floor were reserved for a Hygiene Department.
(c) Faridkot Block: a complete unit for teaching Anatomy. (d) Kapurthala Block: the Department of materia Medica.
(e) A cold storage block with separate Pathology and medicolegal postmortem theatres.
More and more applications were being received for admission each year: the number had doubled over the previous five years. The military department alone required ninety new graduates every year. Hence Punjab civil and Burma entrants were cut down from 15 to 10, with no admissions for potential privately financed students from Indian states and Municipalities.
This led to frustration for the rejected applicants and also left the governments requirements unfulfilled. The College and School vied with each other for the lion’s share of vacancies and facilities.
Finally, the only, option left was something that had been urged over the years, namely, shifting the School to Amritsar, which had a big hospital and a large number of unclaimed bodies available for dissection. The separation or-the College and School was effected in October, 1920. The next year, the College rolls listed 439 students as against 231 in 1916.
There was no special provident fund for the staff then, though some did subscribe to the general government provident fund. Students were not medically examined. The tutorial group system, besides being of academic value, played a social role with a close and intimate contact between students and teachers, and provided a substitute for formal religious and moral instruction. In contrast to other universities in the country, there was no communal prejudice in the KEMC. and the political unrest did not affect its placed working. Only two students participated in the non-cooperation movement and left the College.
For instruction in Midwifery, students from this college used to go to Madras. Since the maximum number of students entertained was 60, either the number of admissions had to be limited to around 60 or some provision for teaching midwifery had to be made in Lahore. This situation was brought to a head when the Government of Madras discontinued receiving KEMC students in 1925-26. A temporary maternity hospital was set up for practical midwifery classes till the expected completion of a permanent hospital in 1927. The entries in 1924 were restricted to 75 students.
A university regulation requiring students to attend 20 midwifery cases under adequate supervision precipitated another fall in the number of admissions in those years. In 1928-29, 18 students less than the previous years were admitted: the number of Muslims fell from 182 to 168. The next year, there were 153 Muslims as against 265 non-Muslims. However, in 1928-29, a total of 26 pupils were trained at the temporary maternity hospital in Lahore.

Lt. Col. Harper-Nelson, in his annual Principal’s report for 1932-33, discussed the situation of the College at length. He said he realized that his proposals, such as those for a Pharmacology Department extension, swimming pool, better hostels and playing fields, entailed expense, but it was up to the government to devise means to meet the expenditure. The College had always been a victim of the government’s financial stringency in spite of a continuous voicing of demands for adequate financing and having proved its worth to the government and the people. It was necessary, he said to bolster the College and provide a sound superstructure for the welfare of the Province. He noted that no improvement either in accommodation or facilities had taken place over the past year, which was probably the worst in the history of the College in this respect.

On the other hand, a questionnaire had been issued, which was a virtual indictment of the College. In replying to this scrutiny, his office staff had to work six weeks, nights and holidays included. This questionnaire had created a sense of insecurity in the staff and diverted their energies to worrying about their future and performance instead of devoting them to constructive purposes.

Lt. Col. Harper-Nelson pointed out that the reputation of the College was widespread; applications for undergraduate studies had been received from, South America, Jamaica, Hong Kong, The Malay States, and Rome, Former students had obtained the MRCP ( London & Edinburgh), FRCS ( England and Edinburgh), Diplomas in Public Health, Tropical Medicine, Hygiene, Midwifery and Diseases of the Eye. These successes of alumni abroad pointed to a deep understanding of medical teaching in their almamater which was jeopardized by financial strangulation. A special mention was made of the deficient resources of the materia medica Department in the report.

The report spoke of the success of the mixed classes with 20 women on the rolls, but said that proper accommodation and comfort must be provided to the ladies, like at other institutions, in the country, and they be protected from untoward influences.

The Government Hospital for women and children had been officially opened by the Countess of Willingdon, on March 11 1933 and named after her. It had provided training in and Obstetrics to the college students for two years, but the building had only now been completed. However, it did not have enough beds to cater for all the students and was so far off as to interfere with their attendance at classes in the College.
Demands for an expansion of the Lady Willingdon Hospital fell on deaf ears. To add insult to injury, the Indian medical Council in its turn criticized the College. The problem was that students received Practical Midwifery training in batches of five at a time due to a lack of accommodation and they could be kept for only 24 days. This fell short of the month of attendance required by regulations. Consequently, the College was disaffiliated in 1930 and as a compensation for space shortage, admission were cut from 75 to 60.

Since the College catered, besides Punjab, for the North west Frontier Province, Delhi Province, Baluchistan Administration, Jammu and Kashmir State and Punjab States, of the 75 normal seats, Punjab students were allotted 55 Seats, 20 being reserved for students from the other areas. About 300 applications were received from the Punjab every year.

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